In this section, some types of scientific texts are enumerated and presented: term papers, term papers, student papers; Examination papers such as diploma theses, master theses, master theses, bachelor theses, bachelor theses and dissertations; Books / monographs, publications; Technical papers.
Seminar papers, term papers, student papers
Seminar papers are in principle short essays which deal with a very specific topic. For you as a student, seminar papers are the ideal preparation for a more extensive study project, such as a diploma thesis. Take this opportunity.
The scope of seminar papers is usually between 10 and 20 pages. Do not underestimate this: it can be harder to portray something as narrow as 200 pages. Consider this in your choice of topic (if you have the free choice at all). The topic should be as special as possible.
The structure of a seminar paper roughly corresponds to that of the later thesis:
- title page
- possibly picture and table index
- Main text, broken down into introduction, main part and final
- Appendix with bibliography
Other formalities such as font and size, typesetting levels, etc. usually correspond to those of theses such as bachelor or diploma theses.
Methodical and content requirements
What is required? You should not reinvent my wheel of housework. Rather, you are proving that you are able to “stalk” a scientific theme on a topic. Pay attention to a well thought-out structure. In a seminar paper, however, it will not make much sense to divide into more than two levels (more on the outline here 🙂 Usually, one level of detail is sufficient. Tear open the state of research as well. Nobody will expect you to give an overview of the research on a specific topic. But he should not stay unmentioned.
With your work you should answer a question. Write down one or two theses that you refute or confirm in the course of your logically thought-out train of thought. Anyway, look at the essays you need to read – read many essays and articles, this will give you a sense of how a seminar paper should be designed.
Scientific work generally requires the greatest possible amount of Objektivit. But: Please do not save too much with your opinion. Or do not you have one? As long as your opinion is explicitly labeled as such, it is indispensable for a good text.
Theses such as diploma theses, master theses, master theses, bachelor theses, bachelor theses and dissertations
Diploma theses, master theses, master theses / master theses as well as bachelor theses / bachelor theses and dissertations are treated uniformly in the following, since they differ mainly in scope and fields of study.
For the structure of your dissertation or master’s thesis, there are usually exactly the requirements of the institute. In general, however, the following structure is used:
- title page
- if necessary list of abbreviations
- if necessary list of figures
- possibly table directory
- if applicable, abstract
- if necessary preface
- if necessary appendix
- if necessary keyword index
- possibly a tabular CV
- Statutory declaration
- Methodical and content requirements
With a thesis, and this includes master’s or bachelor’s theses, prove that you are capable of applying what you have learned in your studies; that you are able to work scientifically independently. Prove to the reader that you have methodological competence: that you are capable of looking at a topic from a scientific-analytical perspective. Set up theses – you can already do that with the title of your work – which you refute or prove in the course of your work. Contribute your part to research, with as useful a topic as possible. This way your thesis will be successful.
In principle, the same requirements apply to dissertations for dissertations like diploma theses. Of course, doctoral theses are somewhat more extensive, they should take into account the entire state of research and must advance and enrich research in their field.
Scientific dissertations of this kind usually either deal theoretically with a topic or examine it empirically and then evaluate it. In practice, both forms are usually mixed. For example, in works of sociology, a theoretical part, which reflects the problem situation and the state of research, follows a practical part, which evaluates a concrete investigation, such as a content analysis.
And also applies to dissertations or diploma theses: show your flag. Be critical – as long as your opinion is always labeled as such, it is rarely out of place.
Books / monographs, publications
Scientific books are usually surrounded by the nimbus of boredom: deserts of lead, complicated sentence constructions, technical language, bad typography.
This has to do with the fact that they are mainly written for colleagues who are expected to understand what they mean.
But that also has to do with the fact that many publishers today leave their authors to themselves. They should take care of the proofreading or proofreading themselves, the artwork and, best of all, the marketing. Good editing costs money, as well as good typographic design. Both are worth gold. In combination with a sensible marketing strategy, even a scientific book can become a bestseller.
As a graduate student, you should consider this carefully. The best editing will be of no use to you if you do not endeavor to make your book or dissertation useful to the general public. Or are you just looking for the doctorate you are looking for? Does it seem too strenuous to write for a reader who does not have the same horizon of knowledge as you?
Please, try – your promotion will cost you many thousands of euros. Why not take some of them back through book sales? Find a publisher who also markets your book. Who offers a proper editing and does not expect your dissertation in Word will be typographically processed. Believe me, it will pay off, not in the form of money.
Or do you like to read in unstructured lead deserts? Even as a scientist, you may design a book in an appealing and legible manner.
A scientific book should meet the following formal requirements:
- good typography: a matching font, clear formatting with live headlines, etc.
- Service to the reader: directories incl. Index
- Illustrations, as colorful as possible, even if the print is a bit more expensive then
- understandable writing style
- perfect spelling
Stick to it, do not believe everything your publisher tells you (you do not believe everything that your papers say), and you’ll publish a book that does not dust off the shelves of some libraries until it’s sorted out.
Scientific papers are often intended for publication in journals and should document the results of a particular research process. The form of this type of scientific essay may vary from subject to subject, but the usual is the following:
- Title of the article
- List of authors
- possibly a short presentation of the content
- Formulation of the hypotheses, showing the current state of research
- Presentation of materials and methods
- Presentation of the results and the result
- Discussion, interpretation of the results, further questions
Special articles can also be published in edited volumes. Of course, an article in the field of humanities will look a little different from one of the natural sciences. Especially in the sciences, the papers are often written in English.
To ensure the quality of articles, there is the so-called cross-examination (peer review). The scientific work is peer-reviewed by peers independently and examined for their scientific character.